Further Readings for My Brother's Road

A List of Sources, Organized by Chapter and Topic

This bibliography is intended as a guide for further reading. It is a partial list of published sources, some of which were cited in My Brother's Road, and most of which are book-length secondary sources in English. Several unpublished print sources have been listed solely because they have been cited in the text of the book. With a few exceptions, the list includes no audiovisual sources, and only a few newspaper, journal, and magazine sources.

Sources for Chapters One and Three: The History of the San Joaquin Valley:

Arax, Mark and Wartzman, Rick. The King of California: J.G. Boswell and the Making of a Secret American Empire. New York: Public Affairs, 2003.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Vol. I: The Native Races: Wild Tribes. San Francisco: A.L. Bancroft & Company, 1883. (Especially Chapter IV, “Californians,” pp. 322-470.)

--------. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, Vol. XXIV: History of California, Vol. VII: 1860-1890. San Francisco: The History Company, 1890. (Especially Chapter XVIII: “Extermination of the Indians, 1849-1887,” pp. 474-494.) (Note: Bancroft makes no mention of Armenian immigration or the Seropians.)

--------. The Worksof Hubert Howe Bancroft, Vol. XXXIV: California Pastoral: 1769-1848. San Francisco: The History Company, 1888. (A version of the legend of Joaquin Murieta, “king of California cut-throats,” appears at pp. 644-649. According to Bancroft, “Murieta had higher aims than mere revenge and pillage.” (ibid., p. 646).)

Daniel, Cletus. Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farmworkers, 1870-1941. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1981.

Dawson, Robert and Brechin, Gray. Farewell, Promised Land: Waking from the California Dream. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Garner, Van H. The Broken Ring: The Destruction of the California Indians. Tucson: Westernlore Press, 1982.

Heizer, Robert Fleming and Almquist, Alan F. The Other Californians: Prejudice and Discrimination under Spain, Mexico, and the United States to 1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

Latta, Frank . The Handbook of the Yokuts. Oildale, California: Bear State Books, 1949.

McFarland, Randal J. (ed.). Faces and Places: Fresno and the Central San Joaquin Valley. Fresno: The Fresno Bee, 2002. (Photobook.)

McWilliams, Carey. California: The Great Exception. New York: A.A. Wyn, 1949.

--------. Factories in the Field: The Story of Migratory Farm Labor in California. Santa Barbara: Peregrine Publishers, Inc., 1971. (First published in 1939—the same year as The Grapes of Wrath.)

Mitchell, Annie R. Visalia: Her First Fifty Years. Exeter, California: self-published?, 1963.

--------. The Way It Was. Fresno: Valley Publications, 1976.

--------. Sites to See: Historical Landmarks in Tulare County. Fresno: Panorama West Books, 1983.

--------. Visalia’s Heritage. Visalia: Visalia Heritage, Inc., 1986.

Norris, Frank. The Octopus. New York: Bantam Books, 1963. (Historical novel first published in 1901.)

Powers, Stephen. Tribes of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. (Originally published in 1877.)

Preston, William. Vanishing Landscapes: Land and Life in the Tulare Basin. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.

Secrest, William B. When the Great Spirit Died: The Destruction of the California Indians, 1850-1860. Sanger, CA: Word Dance Press, 2003.

Starr, Kevin. Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973.

--------. Inventing the Dream: California through the Progressive Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

--------. Endangered Dreams: The Great Depression in California. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.


Sources for Chapters One and Three: Armenian Immigration to Central California:

Avakian, Arra S. The Armenians in America. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company, 1977.

Bakalian, Anny. Armenian-Americans: From Being to Feeling Armenian. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Transaction Press, 1993.

Bulbulian, Berge. “Armenians in the California Raisin Industry,” The Journal of the Fresno City and County Historical Society, Vol. 40, no. 3 (Fall 1998), pp. 1-5.

--------. The Fresno Armenians: History of a Diaspora Community. Fresno: The Press at California State University, Fresno, 2000.

Davidian, Nectar. The Seropians. Berkeley: self-published, 1965.

Janigian, Aris. Bloodvine. Berkeley: Heyday Books, 2003. (Semi-biographical novel.)

Khungian, Toros B. “Fresno’s Armenian Colony,” The Fresno Morning Republican, March 26, 1905.

--------. “Origins and Development of the Fresno Armenian Community to the 1918 Year,” Armenian Review 31, February 1979, pp. ?. (Translation from original Armenian article in Asbarez.)

Kloos, Helmut. “Gardens of Armenian-Americans in Fresno, California: Food and Medicinal Plants,” n.p., June, 1974.

LaPiere, Richard Tracy. The Armenian Colony in Fresno County, California: A Study in Social Psychology. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1930.

Mahakian, Charles. History of the Armenians in California. Berkeley: Thesis, University of California, 1935.

Malcolm, M. Vartan. The Armenians in America. Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1919.

Mandalian, James G. Armenian Pro-Soviets in the United States. Boston: The Hairenik Association, Inc., 1951. (Reprinted from The Hairenik Weekly, June 28-August 2, 1951.)

Mardikian, George. Song of America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956.

Mirak, Robert. Torn Between Two Lands: 1896 to World War I. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983.

Phillips, Hubert. “The Armenians of Fresno County,” Ararat Magazine, Fall, 1992, pp. 40-43.

Saroyan, William. My Name is Aram. New York: Dell Publishing Company, 1966. (Fiction.)

Wallis, Wilson D. Fresno Armenians. (Originally written in 1919?) (ed. Nectar Davidian). Lawrence, Kansas: Coronado Press, 1965.

Wrightson, James. “First Party from Armenia Found: Newcomers Felt Letdown at Sight of Desert Town,” The Fresno Bee, April 18, 1956, p. 2E.

Yeretzian, Aram S. A History of Armenian Immigration to America with Special Reference to Los Angeles. Thesis, University of Southern California, 1923.

Author uncertain. “Astonishing Persecution of Armenians in the Congregational Church at Fresno,” Fresno Daily Expositor, January 19, 1894, p.?

Author uncertain. History of St. Mary Armenian Apostolic Church, 1911-1976. Yettem, California: St. Mary Armenian Apostolic Church, 1977).


Sources for Chapters Two and Three: Armenia in the Modern Era:

Auron, Yair. The Banality of Indifference: Zionism and the Armenian Genocide. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 2000.

Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.

Bryce, James and Toynbee, Arnold. The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916: Document Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden by Viscount Bryce (uncensored edition). Princeton, NJ: Gomidas Institute, 2000.

Douglas, John M. The Armenians. New York: J.J. Winthrop, 1992.

Filian, Rev. George H. Armenia and Her People, or the Story of Armenia by an Armenian. Hartford, Conn.: American Publishing Co., 1896.

Gidney, James B. A Mandate for Armenia. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1967.

Gurun, Kamuran. The Armenian File: The Myth of Innocence Exposed. London, Nicosia and Istanbul: K. Rustem & Bro. and Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd., 1985.

Hewson, Robert H. Armenia: A Historical Atlas. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Hovannisian, Richard G. Armenia: On the Road to Independence, 1918. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.

--------. The Republic of Armenia, Vol. I: The First Year, 1918-1919. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971.

--------. The Republic of Armenia, Vol. II: From Versailles to London, 1919-1920. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995.

--------. The Republic of Armenia, Vol. III: From London to Sevres, February to August 1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

--------. The Republic of Armenia, Vol. IV: Between Crescent and Sickle: Partition and Sovietization. University of California Press, 1995.

Lang, David M. Armenia: Cradle of Civilization. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1978. (First published in 1970.)

Lenin, V.I. Hayastani yev Hai zhoghovoorti maseen (On Armenia and the Armenian People). Yerevan: Hayastan Press, 1987. (Selections from Lenin’s Collected Works, edited by the Institute of Party History of the Central Committee of the Armenian Communist Party.)

Miller, Donald E. and Miller, Lorna Touryan. Survivors: An Oral History of the Armenian Genocide. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Morgenthau, Henry. Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1919.

Nalbandian, Louise. The Armenian Revolutionary Movement. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1963.

Nassibian, Akaby. Britain and the Armenian Question, 1915-1923. London and Sydney: Croom Helm, and New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984.

Pasdermadjian, H. Histoire de l’Arménie depuis les origines jusqu’au traité de Lausanne (4th ed.). Paris: H. Samuelian, 1986.

Permanent People’s Tribunal. A Crime of Silence: The Armenian Genocide. London: Zed Books, Ltd., 1985.

Raffi (Melik-Hagopian, Hagop). The Fool: Events from the Last Russo-Turkish War (1877-1978) (trans. Donald Abcarian). Princeton: Gomidas Institute, 2000. (Historical novel, first published in Armenian as Khente in 1881.)

Riggs, Henry H. Days of Tragedy in Armenia: Personal Experiences in Harpoot, 1915-1917 (ed. Ara Sarafian). Princeton, NJ: Gomidas Institute, 1997.

Sarafian, Ara, ed. United States Official Documents on the Armenian Genocide, Vols. 1 and 2. Watertown, Mass.: Armenian Review Press, 1993.

Ter Minassian, Anaide. Nationalism and Socialism in the Armenian Revolutionary Movement. Cambridge, Mass.: The Zoryan Institute, 1984.

Toynbee, Arnold Joseph. Armenian Atrocities: The Murder of a Nation. New York: Tankian Publishing Co., 1975. (First published in London by Hodder & Stoughton, 1917.)

Walker, Christopher. Armenia: The Survival of a Nation. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1980.

Werfel, Franz. The Forty Days of Musa Dagh. New York: Viking Press, Inc., 1934. (Historical novel.)


Chapters Five and Six: The Iranian Revolution and Its Aftermath:

Hiro, Dilip. Iran under the Ayatollahs. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985.

Inouye, Daniel K., Hamilton, Lee H. Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair (Abridged Edition, with the Minority Views) (Brinkley, Joel and Engelberg, Stephen, eds.). New York: Times Books, 1988.

Keddie, Nikki R. Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History of Modern Iran. New Haven: Yale Univeristy Press, 1981.

Kinzer, Stephen. All the Shah’s Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &Sons, Inc. 2003.

Ramazani, R.K. Revolutionary Iran: Challenge and Response in the Middle East. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986.

Rubin, Barry. Paved with Good Intentions: The American Experience and Iran. New York, Penguin Books, 1981.

Stempel, J. D. Inside the Iranian Revolution. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1981.

Uz-Zaman, Waheed. Iranian Revolution: A Profile. Islamabad: Instititute of Policy Studies, 1985.

Walsh, Lawrence E. Iran-Contra: The Final Report. New York: Times Books, 1994.


Sources on Chapter Five through Nine: The Lebanese Civil War:

Al-Shaykh, Hanan. Beirut Blues (trans. Catherine Cobham). New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday, 1995. (Novel, published in the original Arabic in 1992.)

Chomsky, Noam. The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, & the Palestinians. Boston: South End Press, 1983.

Fisk, Robert. Pity the Nation: The Abduction of Lebanon. New York: Atheneum, 1990.

Jansen, Michael. The Battle of Beirut. Boston: South End Press, 1982.

Joumblatt, Kamal. I Speak for Lebanon. London: Zed Press, 1982.

Khalidi, Walid. Conflict and Violence in Lebanon. Cambridge, Mass.: Center for International Affairs, 1979.

Nassib, Selim and Tisdall, Caroline. Beirut: Frontline Story. London: Africa World Press, 1983.

Randal, Johnathan C. Going All the Way: Christian Walords, Israeli Adventurers, and the War in Lebanon. New York: Viking, 1983.


Sources for Chapters Six through Eleven: "Armenian Terrorism"; and Related Topics:

Ajemian, Kevork. A Time for Terror. Dulles, Virginia: Books International, Inc., 1997. (Fictionalized autobiographical novel.)

Becker, Jillian. Hitler’s Children: The Story of the Baader-Meinhof Gang. London: Michael Joshel, 1977, and Granada Publishing, 1978.

Chaliand, Gerard, and Ternon. Yves. The Armenians: From Genocide to Resistance (trans. Tony Berrett). London: Zed Press, 1981.

Corsun, Andrew. “Armenian Terrorism: A Profile.” U.S. Department of State Bulletin 82 (August 1983).

Dasnabedian, Hratch. History of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation--Dashnaktsutiun, 1890-1924 (Trans. Bryan Fleming and Vahe Habeshian). Rome: OEMME Edizioni, 1989.

Feigl, Erich. A Myth of Terror: Armenian Extremism: Its Causes and Its Historical Context. Edition Zeitgeschichte, nd.

Gaibov, Ismet and Sharifov, Azad. Armenian Terrorism. Baku: Publishing House Azerbaijan, 1992. (48-page pamphlet.)

Gunter, Michael M. “The Armenian Terrorist Campaign against Turkey,” Orbis, Vol. 27 (Summer 1983), pp. 447-477.

------. Pursuing the Just Cause of Their People”: A Study of Contemporary Armenian Terrorism. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. (Also: Gunter, Michael,)

------. “Transnational Armenian Activism.” Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, March 1990. (pp. 1-35) (Gunter was Professor of Political Science at Tennessee Technological University.)

Gurriarán, José Antonio. La Bomba. Barcelona: Planeta, 1982.

Hay Baykar (periodical tabloid). Various issues, from No. 1 (1978?) to No. 124. (July 5, 1988).

Hayastan ("official" ASALA journal). Various issues, from No. 0 (Fall 1980) to the commemorative issue entitled ASALA: 1975-1995 (nd.).

Henze, Paul B. “The Roots of Armenian Violence.” (n.p.? n.d.?) (Henze was CIA station chief in Turkey during the mid-1970s.)

Hyland, Francis P. Armenian Terrorism: The Past, the Present, the Prospects. Boulder, Westview Press, 1991. (Hyland is described on the jacket blurb as “a lecturer at the Defense Intelligence College.” The book totals 248 Arabic-numbered pages, of which 149 (pp. 91-240) consist of two appendixes. The appendixes contain data, mostly in the form of chronological lists and tables, on attacks “known or suspected to have been carries out ‘in connection with’ Armenian terrorism,” dating from March 21, 1915 (sic.), to April 28, 1988. Although Hyland cites Monte’s The Reality (p. 24 and elsewhere), nowhere has he referenced Monte’s Critique or Report.)

Kurz, Anat and Merari, Ariel. ASALA: Irrational Terror or Political Tool. Tel Aviv: Jaffee Center for Stategic Studies, Tel Aviv University, 1985.

Laqueur, Walter. Terrorism. London: Weidernfeld and Nicolson., 1977.

-------. The Terrorism Reader. New York: The New American Library, Inc., 1978.

Marighella, Carlos. Minimanual of the Urban Guerrilla. Boulder: Paladin Press, 1978.

Melkonian, Monte. History of ASALA. (“Organized by Azad Mardirosian” (pseudonym).) No reliable publication information. (Unauthorized publication. Typeset Armenian translation corresponding to handwritten facsimile in English on facing pages. The book also appeared in an edition with only several initial pages of the handwritten facsimile, followed by the Armenian translation exclusively.)

------. A Manual for the Training of a People’s Fighter. (75 pp. handwritten manuscript, unfinished.) (Written in Lebanon, probably some time after July 1983 (it was definitely written after Reagan’s invasion of Grenada), from notes compiled earlier. It has never been published in any form.)

------. Constitution du Front Democratique, Hay Baykar, (No. 53). (n.p, n.d?) , p. ? (Collectively written text, in which Monte collaborated with a number of comrades, including Jiriar “Shishko” Minasian.)

------. Chartre politique provisoire du “Front Patriotique pour la Liberation de l’Armenie. (Monte was one of several anonymous co-authors of this 47-page typeset document. The provisional first-draft of the text, circulated in Armenian, French, and English, was dated December 7, 1989. Monte’s twenty-six page critique of this text, in English, was dated December 24, 1989. Also refer to “A Word on the June 1990 Version of the FPLA’s Political Charter,” below.)

------. The Reality. Compiled in 1984; updated in January 1985; published in a small print-run in English as a pamphlet, and published in Armenian translation in London. (Organized by Seta Kbranian-Melkonian and Monte Melkonian. Later reorganized and republished in Armenian translation in Yerevan as Eeraganootiun, under the imprimature of ASALA-Revolutionary Movement, 1992 (but actually printed in 1995). (247 pp.) An audio cassette version in Armenian also circulated. (17,000 words in length—247 pp. in final published form in Armenian. According to a letter from Monte dated September 21, 1990, “absolutely every word and comma was written collectively.”)

------. A Critique of Armenian Armed Action from the Early 1970s until December 31, 1983. This is a collectively written text, in which Monte had a hand. It consists of 126 pages of single-spaced text, tables, charts and graphs. Prepared in London and distributed in photocopied typescript form and a small print run, under the imprimatur of “ASALA-Revolutionary Movement.” (Later Monte submitted corrections through December 1, 1990, but the corrected version was never published.)

------. A Report on Armenian Armed Activity: 1985 to 1987. Collectively written text, compiled in 1988. Prepared in London and distributed in photocopied typescript form in a small print run under the imprimatur of “ASALA-Revolutionary Movement.”

------. “Long-Term Organizational Perspectives for the Armenian Revolutionary Movement,” Hayastan-Kaytser (No. 92-93), (London) May-June 1988, pp. 10-12. (signed “Monte Melkonian”) Prepared in London and distributed separately in photocopied typescript form. An edited version appears in RTS, pp. 158-165.

------. The Right to Struggle: Selected Writings of Monte Melkonian on the Armenian National Question. Second Edition. (ed. Markar Melkonian. Includes collectively written texts.) San Francisco: Sardarabad Press, 1993. (MS corrected by author, but published posthumously.) (238 pp.) (A first edition of approximately 300 copies was printed in 1990, under the imprimatur of Sardarabad Press. The editor of the first edition was listed as Greg Bagdassarian, a pseudonym for Markar Melkonian. Monte did not have the chance to review final corrections before publication, however, and he immediately began writing a long series of corrections for a lengthy errata, which he asked the editor to distribute. These corrections were incorporated into the second edition, which was published posthumously. Monte never distributed the several copies of the first edition that he received. Ten years after his death, the book appeared in Armenian translation as Baikareloo Eeravoonku (Yerevan: Monte Melkonian Fund, June 2003). The Armenian edition includes a short Foreword by Alec Yenikomshian. An Italian translation was published in 2004. An Italian edition edited and translated by Karechin Cricorian appeared in 2004 as La forza di combattere: Scritti scelti sulla questione nazionale armena, Guasila: Editziones de su.)

Minassian, Gaidz. Guerre et terrorisme arméniens: 1972-1998. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2002.

Nalbandian, Louise. The Armenian Revolutionary Movement: The Development of Armenian Political Parties through the Ninetheenth Century. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1963.

Natalie, Shahan. Turkism from Angora to Baku and Turkish Orientation and The Turks and Us. (trans. “C.S.”). Nagorno Karabagh: Piunik, 2002.

Saroyan, Nishan. “Radical Armenian Movements in the 1980’s.” Unpublished transcript of talk delivered in 1981.

Shiragian, Arshavir. The Legacy. Boston: Hairenik Press, 1976.

Sterling, Claire. The Terror Network: The Secret War of International Terrorism. New York: Hold, Reinhart and Winston, 1981.

Ternon, Yves. The Armenian Cause. Delmar, New York: Caravan Books, 1985.

Tololyan, Khachig. “Martyrdom as Legitimacy: Terrorism, Religion, and Symbolic Appropriation in the Armenian Diaspora,” Contemporary Research on Terrorism (Wilkinson, Paul and Stewart, Alasdair, eds.). Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1987, pp. 89-103.

--------. “Cultural Narrative and the Motivation of the Terrorist,” Journal of Strategic Studies, May 1987. (?)

Villeneuve, Charles and Pèret, Jean-Pierre. Histoire secrète au terrorisme. Paris: Editions Plon, 1987.

Wallis, Rodney. Lockerbie: The Story and the Lessons. Westport, Connecticut and London: Praeger, 2001.

Wilkinson, Paul. “Armenian Terrorism,” The World Today (September 1983), pp. 344-350.

Wilkinson, Paul and Stewart, Alasdair M., eds. Contemporary Research on Terrorism. Aberdeen, Great Britain: Aberdeen University Press, 1987. (Includes Tololyan, Khachig. “Martyrdom as Legitimacy: Terrorism, Religion, and Symbolic Appropriation in the Armenian Diaspora,” pp. 89-103. Other articles include: Drake, R. “Contemporary Terrorism and the Intellectuals: The Case of Italy,” pp. 130-140; Horchem, H.J. “Terrorism in Germany,” pp. 141-163; Pluchinsky, D.A. “Middle Eastern Terrorist Activity in Western Europe in 1985: A Diagnosis and Prognosis,” pp. 164-178.)


Sources for Chapters Eleven and Thirteen through Eighteen: The History of Azerbaijan:

Abdullazadeh, Fatma. Karabakh. Baku: XXI YNE, 1999. (Photos and text.)

Alieva, Leila. “The Institutions, Orientations, and Conduct of Foreign Policy in Post-Soviet Azerbaijan,” in Adeed Dawisha and Karen Dawisha (eds.), The Making of Foreign Policy in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, NY and London, England: M.E. Sharpe, 1995, pp. 286-308. (See listing under Dawisha and Dawisha, under the next subheading, below.)

Altstadt, Audrey L. The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity under Russian Rule. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1992.

Goltz, Thomas Caufield. Requiem for a Would-Be Republic: The Rise and Demise of the Former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan. Istanbul: The Isis Press, 1994.

--------. “The Great Azeri Oil Scam,” Soldier of Fortune, November 1994, pp. TK.

--------. Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter’s Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic . Armonk, New York and London: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.

Saroyan, Mark. “The ‘Karabakh Syndrome’ and Azerbaijani Politics,” Problems of Communism, no. 39 (September-October 1990), pp. 14-29.

Shaw, Stanford J. and Shaw, Ezel Kural. The History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Vol. 2. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Suny, Ronald G. The Baku Commune: Class and Nationality in the Russian Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972.

Swietochowski, Tadeusz. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

Taheri, Amir. Crescent in a Red Sky: The Future of Islam in the Soviet Union. London: Hutchinson & Co., Ltd., 1989. (Chapter 10 (pages 163-179), is entitled “Explosion in the ‘Black Garden’.”)

Van der Leeuw, Charles. Azerbaijan: A Quest for Identity. Richmond Surrey: Curzon Press, 2000.


Sources for Chapters Eleven and Thirteen through Eighteen: Mountainous Karabagh and the Karabagh Movement:

Adalian, Rouben Paul (ed.). Armenia & Karabagh Factbook. Washington DC: Armenian Assembly of America, July 1996.

--------. “Armenia’s Foreign Policy: Defining Priorities and Coping with Conflict,” in Adeed Dawisha and Karen Dawisha (eds.), The Making of Foreign Policy in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, NY and London, England: M.E. Sharpe, 1995, pp. 309-339. (See listing under Dawisha, below.)

Alexeyeva, Ludmilla. Soviet Dissent: Contemporary Movements for National, Religious, and Human Rights. Middletown, CN: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1985. (“One of the fullest compilations on illegal protest movements in the Brezhnev period.” --R. Suny)

Allison, Roy (ed.). Challenges of the Former Soviet South. Washington: Brookings Institute Press, 1996.

Andresen, Anton; Arsenault, Rober; Cox, Caroline, et.al. Report of an International Delegation from the First International Andrei Sakharov Memorial Congress to Armenia and Azerbaijan, May 25-31, 1991. (n.p., n.d.)

Arakelov, Robert. Nagorny Karabakh: Committers of the Tragedy Are Known. Baku: Sharg-Garb Publishers, 1992.

Asenbauer, Haig. On the Right of Self-Determination of the Armenian People of Nagorno-Karabagh. New York: The Armenian Prelacy, 1996.

Baev, Pavel. Russia’s Politics in the Caucasus. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1997.

Baghdoyan, Armen. Armenia and Nagorno Karabagh: Problems of Security and Development. Belmont, Mass.: Self-published monograph, 1998.

Balayan, Zori. Between Hell and Heaven: The Struggle for Karabagh. (Trans. Marite Sapiets, Michael Rowe and Felix Corley.) Yerevan: Amaras, 1997. (English translation of Mezhdu raem I adom. Moscow: Academia, 1995.)

Bournoutian, George (ed.). A History of Qarabagh (annotated translationof Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi’s Tarikh-e Qarabagh). Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, 1994.

Brook, Stephen. Claws of the Crab: Georgia and Armenia in Crisis. London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1992.

Chorbajian, Levon (ed.). The Making of Nagorno-Karabagh: From Secession to Republic. Houndmills, U.K. and New York: Palgrave, 2001.

Chorbajian, Levon, Donabedian, Patrick, and Mutafian, Claude. The Caucasian Knot: The History and Geo-Politics of Nagorno-Karabagh. London and New Jersey: Zed Books, 1994.

Chrysanthopoulos, Leonidas T. Caucasus Chronicles: Nation-Building and Diplomacy in Armenia, 1993-1994. Princeton, NJ: Gomidas Institute, 2002. (The author was Ambassador of Greece to Armenia, 1993-1994.)

Corley, Felix. “Dogging Dashnaks, Dissidents, and Dodgy-Dealers: Armenians and the KGB,” Armenian Forum, February 2001 (Vol. 2, Number 3), pp. 1-32.

Coppieters, Bruno (ed.). Contested Borders in the Caucasus. Brussels: VUB Press, 1996.

Cox, Caroline and Eibner, John. Ethnic Cleansing in Progress: War in Nagorno-Karabagh. Zurich, London and Washington: 1993.

Croissant, Michael P. The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998 (192 pp.)

Cullen, Robert. “A Reporter at Large,” The New Yorker, April 15, 1991, pp. 57-76.

Danielian, Emil. “No War, No Peace in Nagorno-Karabakh,” Transitions, August 1997, v.4, #5, p. 47.

Dawisha, Adeed and Dawisha, Karen, (eds.) The Making of Foreign Policy in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, NY and London: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Dudwick, Nora. “Armenia: The Nation Awakes,” Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States (eds., Bremmer, Ian and Taras, Ray). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. ?

Garbis, Armen. With Diary and Sketchbook: Impressions, Sketches, Travelogue, and Historical Notes on the Eventful Last Years of a Soviet Republic. Ottowa, Ont.: Self-published, 1993.

Gaume, Myriam. Les Invités de la Terre. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1993.

-------- (ed.). Vivre en guerre: L’existence au jour le jour dans quelques lieux exposés au pire. Paris: Éditions Phébus, 2003.

Herzig, ? . The New Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1999.

Human Rights Watch/Helsinki. Seven Years of Conflict in Nagorno-Karabagh. New York, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, London, Brussels: Human Rights Watch, 1994.

Hunter, Shireen T. The Transcaucasus in Transition. Washington, D.C.: The Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1994.

Izadi, Mehrdad. “You Too, Armenia?” Kurdish Life, no. 9, Winter 1994. Brooklyn: Kurdish Library, pp. 1-5.

Libaridian, Gerard J. (ed.). The Karabagh File: Documents and Facts on The Question of Mountainous Karabagh: 1918-1988. Cambridge, Mass. and Toronto: The Zoryan Institute, March 1988.

Libaridian, Gerard J. Armenia at the Crossroads: Democracy and Nationhood in the Post-Soviet Era. Watertown, Mass.: Blue Crane Books, 1991.

--------. The Challenge of Statehood: Armenian Political Thinking since Independence. Watertown, Mass.: Blue Crane Books, 1999.

Luchterhandt, Otto. Nagorny Karabakh’s Right to Self-Determination under International Law. Boston: Baikar Association, 1993.

MacFarlane, Neil. Western Engagement in the Caucasus and Central Asia. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1999.

Malkasian, Mark. “Gha-ra-bagh!”: The Emergence of the National Democratic Movement in Armenia. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1996.

Manugyan, Vazgen; Sardaryan, Gdrich; Siradeghyan, Vano; Ishkhanyan, Rafael, and Simonyan, Hrachik. Vorn eh mer Janaparu? (Which Is Our Path?). Yerevan: Arevik, 1990.

Masih, Joseph and Krikorian, Robert. Armenia at the Crossroads. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1999.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Azerbaijani Republic. Information Bulletin on the Consequences of the Aggressions by the Republic of Armenia against the Azerbaijani Republic. Baku, February 1994.

Mollazade, Jeyhun. “The Karabakh Problem: Religious and Historical Dimensions,” pt. 2, in Azerbaijan International magazine, no. 1:2 (Spring, June 1993), pp. 10-11; 28-29.

Najarian, Carolann S. A Call from Home: Armenia and Karabagh, My Journal. Cambridge, Mass: Arpen Press, 1999.

Nolyain, Igor. “Moscow’s Initiation of the Azeri-Armenian Conflict,” Central Asian Survey, 13 (4), 1994, pp. 541-563.

Onnig, Kardash. Savage Chic: A Fool’s Chronicle of the Caucasus. Stanfordville, NY: self-published, 2002.

Orr, David. “Karabakhis Brace for Counterattack,” The Irish Times, May 5, 1993, p. 12.

Parrott, Bruce (ed.). State Building and Military Power in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1995.

Pooneatyan, Artsakh. Aryoonod Orer (Bloody Days): 1992-1993. Self-published, in four volumes. (year TK). Volume 2 contains the most sustained account of Monte’s activities in Mountainous Karabagh.

Ray, Ellen and Schaap, Bill. “This Time, Armenians Are the Aggressors,” Covert Action Quarterly, #49 (Summer 1994), pp. 36-40.

Rieff, David. “Nagorno-Karabagh: Case Study in Ethnic Strife,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 1997, pp, 118-132.

Rost, Yuri. Armenian Tragedy (trans. Elizabeth Roberts). London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1990.

Shahmuratian, Samvel (ed. and compiler). The Sumgait Tragedy: Pogroms against Armenians in Soviet Azerbaijan: Vol. I: Eyewitness Accounts. New Rochelle and Cambridge, Mass.: Aristide D. Caratzas and The Zoryan Institute for Contemporary Armenian Research and Documentation, 1990. (Originally published in Russian in Yerevan, 1989.)

Suny, Ronald Grigor. The Revenge of the Past: Nationalism, Revolution, and the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993.

--------. (ed.) Transcaucasia: Nationalism and Social Change. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1983.

Swietochowski, Tadeusz. The Problem of Nagorno-Karabagh: Geography versus Demography under Colonialism and in Decolonization in Central Asia. NY: St. Martins’ Press, 1993.

United States Committee for Refugees (USCR). Faultlines of Nationality Conflict: Refugees and Displaced Persons from Armenia and Azerbaijan. Washington, D.C.: USCR, March 1994.

Verluise, Pierre. Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1995.

Walker, Christopher J. Armenia and Karabagh: The Struggle for Unity. London: Minority Rights Publications, 1991.

Wright, Goldenberg, Schofield (eds.). Transcaucasian Boundaries. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Mesbahi, Mohiaddin (ed.), Central Asia and the Caucasus after the Soviet Union. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida, 1994.


Sources for Chapters Thirteen through Eighteen: Military Operations in Nagorno Karabagh:

Cheterian, Vicken. “De la guérilla à la guerre totale,” Les Nouvelles d’Arménie (No. 0), Paris, June 1992, pp. 31-33.

Headquarters, Department of the Army. The Soviet Army: Troops, Organization, and Equipment. Field Manual no. 100-2-3. Washington, DC: June 6, 1991.

Masih, Joseph. “Military Strategy in Nagorno-Karabagh,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, Vol. 6, no. 4 (April 1994), pp. 160-? (I received a text-only CD-ROM version, about five pages in length).

Murphy, David E. “Operation ‘Ring’: The Black Berets in Azerbaijan,” The Journal of Soviet Military Studies, Vol. 5, no. 1 (March 1992), pp. 80-96.

Reuters. “Afghan Party Said to Aid Azerbaijan,” Boston Globe, December 26, 1993.

Rowell, Alexis. “U.S. Mercenaries Fight in Azerbaijan,” Covert Action, Spring 1994, pp. 23-27.

Sivaslian, Max. Le Jardin Noir: Karabagh récit de guerre 1992-1994. Paris: UGAB/Editions Cape, 2001. (Photos and text.)

Tatevosyan, Ara. “Nagorno-Karabagh’s New Army of ‘Iron Will and Discipline’,” The Armenian Mirror-Spectator, Saturday, October 5, 1996, pp. 8-9.

Zeitlian, Garine. “So There Are Mercenaries in Azerbaijan,” AIM, May 1994, pp. 13-14.


Biographical Monographs about Monte:

Alexandrian, A.H. “De Monte a Avo: Histoire d’une legende,” Nouvelles d’Arménie, June 2002, pp. 18-31.

“Itinéraire d’un enfant de la diaspora,” “Les réactions,” Nouvelles d’Arménie, June/July 1993 (No. 2), pp. 5-13.

Alexandrian, A. “Il est entré dans la légende,” Nouvelles d’Arménie, no. 35, July-August 1998, pp. 24-29. (Includes: “Le commandant Avo” (interview with Laura Baghdassarian), pp. 25-26; “Il continue à me motiver” (interview with Seta Melkonian) p. 27; “Avo, mon héros” (interview with developmental psychologist Eleonora Zakaryan), pp. 28-29.)

Baghryan, Vartkes. Avo: Hooshabadoom (Avo: A Remembrance). Stepanakert: Mashdots, 1993.

Kamalyan, Seyran. Avon Mer Achkerov (Avo with Our Own Eyes). Yerevan: Nairi, 1994.

Melkonian, Monte. Eenknaknatadootiun (Self-Criticism). Originally written in Amenian in Budapest, in the winter of 1989-90 (dated 22 March 1990). (Thirty-two pages single-spaced typescript, circulated in photocopy form among a small number of Monte’s closest comrades. Posthumously translated by Seta Kbranian-Melkonian into English, but not published in any language.)

Movsisyan, Norair. Mardntsogh Anmahootioon (Man’s Immortality). Yerevan: self-published, 1997. (Poetry.)

Vorbach, Joseph E. “Monte Melkonian: Armenian Revolutionary Leader,” Terrorism and Political Violence ( TK, 1994), pp. 178-195.


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